5ème Conférence Internationale sur les Femmes et le Transport - Construire les ponts
14-16 avr. 2014 Paris - La Défense (France)

Thématiques > Santé, sécurité et sûreté de la personne - Pilier 2

1. Research issues: bridging the gap between men and women, between needs and actual transport system

1.1. Health and safety issue

- What particular social, economic, geographical and psychological factors need to be considered to understand gender issues in health, safety and transport? Do women and men differ in their use of active travel modes? And how does it affect their health? How do pedestrian or cyclist safety and security issues differ between men and women and among women of different ages and socio-cultural backgrounds?

- Are there gender differences in injuries and crash patterns, across generations and across transportation modes? Are men and women differently involved in some accidental scenarios and in which public and/or private modes of transport? Which factors contribute to differences between genders in crashes that involve motorized vehicle passengers and drivers?

- Are there gender differences in health consequences of crashes injuries? Are there gender differentials in access to health care for traffic injuries? Are women and men experience the same social and economic consequences for them and their households of temporary and/or permanent disability resulting from injury?

- What variables should be included in studies that examine women’s crash and injury risk (transportation mode and purpose, type of collision, types of vehicles involved, etc.)? Are women involved in road traffic injuries in different circumstances than men (e.g., travel purpose, mode of transport, type of exposure)? Are some transportation modes more challenging than others for women’s and/or for men’s safety and for what reasons?

- Are there gender differences among older men and women drivers, in self-regulation of driving and driving cessation and/or their underlying factors? Has driving cessation the same impact on older men and women in terms of diminished autonomy and mobility outside home?

1.2. Human factors

- Are there differences between men and women regarding certain cognitive psychological processes involved in crash generation (prior to and during a crash)?

- Are there gender differences in distracted driving? Do women and men similarly use technology, cell phones, text messaging, and other electronic devices while driving? Do these in-vehicle technologies similarly impact driving for both genders? Are there gender differences associated with drivers’ involvement in inattention-related crashes?   How do these differences interact with age and the presence of passengers?

- Are there quantitative and qualitative differences in men and women consumption of alcohol before driving? Is there change in the gender gaps concerning risk-taking behaviors, particularly driving under influence (DOI, drunk and/or drugged and driving) issues?   Have the patterns of alcohol and drug consumption among driving women and men changed over time? Are some groups of women more at risk than others? Are there gender differences in DOI by age, ethnicity, culture, sociocultural status, time of the day?  Does the presence of passengers (children in particular) differently affect the prevalence of DOI among female and male drivers?

- Which are the barriers that impede female passenger to step up and take the wheel off intoxicated men?  Do these barriers relate to age, cultural background, and socioeconomic status?  How can we empower women to overcome these barriers?  Do these barriers vary with age, ethnic group membership, or sociocultural status? Does the presence of passengers (children in particular) create incentives for women to impede men to drive after drinking?

- Do women and men have the same relationship to transportation? Are there gender differences in attitudes, beliefs, behaviors and needs related to transportation, risk-taking behaviors and compliance to legal rules? Does age matter for eventual differences? And how could these differences been explained and addressed? Which are the effects of these beliefs, behaviors and needs on mode of transport and injury risk behaviors in transportation?

- Security in transport: Are there gender differences concerning personal security with respect to transit, active modes, even driving? What is the impact of environmental design and design features on crime prevention and reduction? How do perceived and actual safety and security effect modes and patterns of transport in men and women? To what extent and in what way do concerns relative to one’s personal safety influence women’s decisions in transport (e.g. mode, duration, time)? Are there gender differences in the rates of walking and biking? If so, why? What can be done to encourage more walking and biking among women?

1.3. Difference in body structure and biological specificities

- Are there gender differences in vulnerability in crashes? What is the relationship between vehicle design (crashworthiness) and injury patterns for women and men? Does vehicles construction and safety equipment (different airbags position, for instance) have different implications for women’s and men’s safety and health?

- Is there an effect of pregnancy on the safety and security of women in transportation? Do vehicle safety devices imply specific/particular dangers for pregnant women and their fetus/child and does pregnancy (hormonal or psychological changes for instance) has an impact on women safety?

2. Research to Policy: bridging the gap between research results and policy making

2.1. From people needs to design

- People ergonomic needs in relation to design features of the different transportation modes: How is the private and public vehicle design adapted to the fact that the travelers consist of different body structures? How are traffic safety devices in motor vehicles adjusted for women and men? How often are the crash dummies adjusted to women, men and children? How are the seats in public transport systems adjusted to taller and wider people? What is known about ergonomic issues related to women’s use of vehicles as a function of their work, especially truck and bus drivers?

Are urban design and standards (stations, pavements, design of transport interchanges, waiting areas, park-and-ride facilities) adapted to both gender and all ages needs? Do the quality and level of staffing on vehicles and at bus and railway stations (removal of conductors for example) result in reduced personal safety for passengers, especially women?

2.2. From people needs to policies

What are best practices (from around the world) that take into account gender differences in safety, health, security in prevention and safety education? For instance, do media campaigns aimed to prevent impaired driving, risk-taking and violations need to be gender-specific?  If so, which are the key elements that such gender-specific messages must contain?  Do court-mandated treatments for convicted drivers need to be gender-specific?  If so, which are the key elements that such gender-specific treatments must have?

- What best practices (in terms of environmental design, security hardware, policing, and education/outreach) meet women’s fear of many transportation environments (bus stops, parking structures, etc.)?

- Has gender to be taken into account in effective interventions for continued independent community mobility? If so, how?

- How can gender equality policy in training policy-makers and planners be taken into account? How can we best provide gender awareness training for all staff, male and female, at all levels of the organization?

3. Low, Medium, and High Income Countries: bridging the gap?

- Is there a gap between developing and developed countries concerning gender equalities in transportation? Do the same gender differences exist across countries and regions? Are there cultural, economic, geographical, local, social effects on gender safety, security and health in transportation? Are there differences and similarities in accidental scenarios for each gender across countries and cultures?

- Do evidence based safety measures in transport across countries take into account gender issues? Could these safety measures be used in different countries? What lessons should be learned about gender equality and could these lessons be transferred from a country to another? If so, how?

- What are the challenges ahead in transport safety in countries in transition and how can women issues and gender equalities be integrated in the R&D agenda?

- What should we know when implementing best practices from one country to another? What can be learned from high income countries to improve gender equality in transportation in low and medium income countries? And what could high income countries learn from low and medium income countries in terms of gender equality in health, safety and security in transportation?

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